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自製簡易直流電動機

通電線圈在磁場中受到磁場力矩的作用後會發生轉動。為了使線圈能在磁場中持續轉動,自製的簡易電動機是把它的轉軸作為“自動通斷電裝置”。它可以把由電池供給的直流電改變為時有時無的脈衝電流,從而使線圈在轉動的一周內,只有半周線圈中有電流,此時在磁場力作用下線圈加速旋轉,另半周線圈中無電流,這時線圈依靠慣性轉動。
   工具與材料
  尖嘴鉗,小刀。  小磁鐵,漆包線,裸銅線,木板,膠帶紙,銅片,木螺絲,火柴盒,乾電池。
    活動過程
小磁鐵
    1.以一長約16釐米、寬約10釐米的長方形木板為底座,在底座上放置小磁鐵,磁鐵兩側各用一根直徑1~2毫米、長約12釐米的裸銅線做一線圈支架並兼作線圈與電源間的連線,如圖1—1—54—1所示。

    2.剪2塊銅片,彎成L形作電池夾用,用木螺絲將銅片固定在底座一端的兩側,並使銅片分別與2個線圈支架相連。
    3.將直徑約0.2毫米、長約100釐米的漆包線在火柴盒上繞10—12圈,兩端各留2釐米作為引出線,2根引出線從線圈的正中引出,且兩引出線的連線OO,基本通過線圈的重心,使兩引出線作轉軸時能保證線圈平穩轉動,用膠帶紙將線圈紮緊(線圈也可以做成圖1—1—54—1中所示的六角形)。
    4.把線圈平放在桌面上,用鋒利的小刀將線圈一端引出線(兼作轉軸)上的絕緣漆全部刮去,另一端引出線的絕緣漆只刮去上半圈(注意:貼近桌面的下半圈上的絕緣漆要保留著),即製成一“自動通斷電裝置”。
    5.把線圈的兩引出線分別裝在裸銅線支架上方的圓環中,使其可以靈活轉動。如發現線圈兩側不平衡,可略為移動軸OO,的位置或在輕的一側粘貼膠帶紙作為配重。調整線圈與磁鐵間的距離,找到一個最佳位置,使線圈不僅能轉動,而且能轉得較快。
6.接通電源,稍稍撥動線圈,觀察現象。
  發現線圈能連續轉動。改變電池極性,線圈轉動方向隨之改變;改變磁鐵極性(上下倒置),線圈轉動方向亦隨之改變。
    說明與延伸
    1.在調整線圈與磁鐵間的距離的過程中,如果發現線圈和磁鐵處在某一相對位置時,經撥動轉起來的線圈很快停止,則可反向撥動線圈,再行調整,也可以把磁鐵的兩極交換位置,仍按原方向撥動線圈,進行調整。
    2.由於線圈的一端引出線有半圈絕緣漆未刮去,當這一半與支架接觸時,便沒有電流進入線圈。因此,當線圈靜止在這一半周位置時通電是不能起動的,線圈只有在另外的半周才受到轉動力矩,且線圈平面處於豎直平面中時所受轉動力矩最大,這時靜止線圈最易起動。線圈能連續轉動主要靠慣性。
    3.另一種轉子線圈的繞制方法。
    取直徑約為1毫米、長約50釐米的漆包線一段,如圖1—1—54-2所示把漆包線在互相垂直的兩平面上彎成兩個“日”形,並用小刀把兩端引出線(兼作轉軸)四周的絕緣漆都刮去。要求繞制的線圈在通電時,o、d4條邊上的電流方向都相同。
    與圖1—1-54-1所示裝置中的線圈不同的是,圖1—1-54-2所示線圈在轉動過程中始終有電流通過,並一直受到相同磁場力矩的作用,
因而不需要在轉軸處設制“自動通斷電裝置”。
    使用圖1—1-54-2所示轉子線圈時應注意:

    (1)接通電源後,如果轉子不動,可先用口吹動;
    (2)由於這種轉子電阻很小,轉子電流很大,故電動機工作時間不能太長。

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