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明嘉靖、萬歷時期名瓷簡介

嘉靖和萬曆兩代是明朝生產瓷器最多的時期,景德鎮瓷業在此期間發展迅速,成就尤為突出。仍燒制各種單色釉和青花、素三彩、鬥彩等彩瓷,新創“五彩瓷”並獲得極大成功。

  嘉靖、萬曆的五彩瓷器多為青花五彩,是釉下青花和釉上五彩的結合,是成化鬥彩發展的產物。五彩瓷大量使用礬紅釉、礬紅彩及黃、綠、紫等色彩描畫釉上紋樣,與釉下青花紋樣拼成完整圖形,再用黑褐或赤褐色勾出輪廓,風格濃重豔麗,繽紛可愛。此時期的青花瓷又有進展,多用回青或以回青和瑞州石子青混合,藍中微泛紅紫,濃重鮮豔。

  紋飾盛行兩面彩和錦地。有龍鳳紋、蟠螭紋,花草樹木紋、幾何圖案,動物紋、各種人物故事、文字等,構圖複雜,畫面多繁瑣華縟,濃烈豔麗,缺乏含蓄高雅的氣質。器型多種多樣,除陳設瓷與日用瓷外,尚有宗教供器,流行仿古銅器造型。傳世精品有香爐、大尊、犧尊、扁壺、大羹碗、牡丹瓶、水滴、扇匣和多層套盒等。



青花嬰戲圖蓋罐

  明,嘉靖。通高45釐米,廣口,直頸,豐肩,削脛,圈足。上附扁鼓形蓋,寶珠蓋鈕。以進口青料和國產瑞州石子青料配合繪圖案,色調藍中微泛紅紫,鮮豔濃重。蓋上繪變形蓮紋及纏枝紋,肩上開光,內繪纏枝果紋,腹部為青花嬰戲圖案,近底處飾一圈仰蓮瓣。此器堪稱明嘉靖官窯青花之代表作。




礬紅蓮紋瓶

  明,嘉靖。景德鎮窯,高28釐米。瓶撇口,束頸,溜肩,深圓腹,圈足。施白釉,以礬紅(即棗皮紅)繪圖案。頸上為一周覆蓮紋,肩腹部飾大片纏枝紋,近底處繪仰蓮瓣。紋飾色深而紅,猶似重棗,且呈色穩定,別具一番風韻。




茄皮紫釉暗龍紋碗

  明,萬曆,碗為撇口,深弧腹壁,圈足。足底及器裏施白釉,外壁施茄皮紫釉。腹上飾暗紋風雲行龍圖案,圈足上飾回紋一圈。整器素雅清淡,端莊古樸。




  五彩獸面紋鼎

  明,萬曆,景德鎮窯。高12.8釐米,口徑15.9-12.8釐米。1973年陝西綏德馬如龍夫婦合葬墓出土。現藏陝西省博物館。長方口,方唇,從兩側口沿上各豎一耳,腹四角及每面正中均有扉棱一道,下承四圓柱足。腹壁以青花,紅黃,綠,紫等色彩繪獸面紋,棱上繪黃色T形紋和綠色橫紋,足上繪彩色環紋。造型別致,紋飾典雅豔麗。




五彩雲龍紋花觚

  明,萬曆,景德鎮窯。高58釐米,口徑17.8釐米,足徑18釐米。現藏北京故宮博物館。敞口,細長頸,球腹,高足外撇,圈足。口邊有“大明萬歷年制”青花長方框楷書款。裏施白釉,外為白地五彩。口沿繪尖角蕉葉紋一周,頸部繪雲龍戲珠及纏枝靈芝紋,腹上繪孔雀棲枝紋,足上繪折枝花紋和山石海浪紋,各部分分界處或以回紋或以蓮瓣紋相隔,層次儼然,色彩分明,富麗堂皇,以紅濃綠豔取勝。

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